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HPLC Characterization of Polyphenols and Oligosaccharides in Phaseolus Vulgaris L. Italian Landraces

Annalisa Romani, Pamela Vignolini, Patrizia Pinelli, Francesca Ieri, Nadia Mulinacci, Daniela Heimler

A simple extraction procedure was optimized to characterize and quantify the polyphenols and oligosaccharides of whole seeds of four landraces of Phaseolus vulgaris L., which have not previously been investigated. The samples were collected in different Italian regions (Tuscany and Basilicata) in three different years. Flavonols, isoflavones and hydroxycinnamic derivatives were detected and characterized by HPLC/DAD/MS. The total amount of polyphenols ranged from 10.69 to 1,218.93 mg/kg. Oligosaccharides (sucrose, raffinose and stachyose) were detected and identified by HPLC/RI. The total oligosaccharidic amount ranged from 7.738 to 5.081 g/100g of seed flour. Kaempferol derivatives, hydroxycinnamic derivatives, stachyose and sucrose contents differentiated three landraces at the 1% significance level.

The Influence of Modified Riverine-Coastal System on the Diffusion of Trace Elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd And Pb) Studied by a Point Source Spatial Model

Antonella Del Signore, Tonio Di Battista

Some trace elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) are dosed in sediment, mussel and alga samples in order to study their diffusion in a modified riverine-coastal system. It has been possible to show that the construction of a artificial barrier overlooking the riverís mouth caused an anomalous concentration of metals in all substrata analysed. Moreover a higher concentration of these metals was found on the northern shore of the river because of the prevalently northern direction of the coastal sea current

13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Study Triacylglycerols of Olive Oils from DPO Areas of Puglia Region

Giovanna Vlahov

13C NMR DEPT methodology was applied to run quantitative spectra of olive oils sampled in the four areas with denomination of protected origin (DPO) of the Puglia region, i.e. Terra di Bari, Colline di Brindisi, Dauno and Terra d'Otranto. The intensities of 13C resonances of saturated and unsaturated carbons of triglyceride acyl chains were measured. The composition, the 2-position distribution and the specificity of acyl chains for 2-position of triacylglycerols were studied.
The intensity of 13C resonances were also processed by multivariate methods of statistical analysis to find associations among the oil samples. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis detected three olive oil clusters in correspondence of the monovarietal oils based on Coratina (Terra di Bari DPO), on Ogliarola Salentina (Colline di Brindisi DPO), and on Ogliarola Garganica (Dauno DPO) cultivars. However, a low sampling rate and a multivarietal composition of the oils from the Terra d'Otranto DPO made it difficult to determine their peculiarity.

Consumers' Assessment of the musculature's colour of preserved tuna

Attilio Milazzo, Salvatore Urso

The consumption of tinned tuna in Italy is very widespread and its market share is nearly 70% of all preserved fish. On hundred and ten consumers of a supermarket were asked to sample two different varieties of tinned tuna, Yellow fin and Blue fin, and were asked to provide their judgment. The favourite variety proved to be the Yellow fin type both for its taste as well as its colour.
The questionnaire is based on the Linkert ordinal scale and the most adequate statistical analysis for the present data is the Ordinal Logistic Regression

Electronic Waste: Mobile phones case study

Annarita Paiano, Giovanni Lagioia, Teodoro Gallucci

In the last few years, there has been a sharp increase in the consumption of commodities with a short life-cycle. This is especially true for electronic equipment, such as mobile phones which are the object of this paper. The short life-cycle, due to the continually substituting of obsolete equipment with new more and more innovative models, has stimulated the growth in sales of electronic goods. This non-stop technological progress, however, has also led to an increased quantity of "electronic waste". The environmental impact, which is difficult to quantify, is compounded by the rising consumption of resources (such as energy, water and chemical substances) above all in the first steps of the manufacturing process. Contrary to popular thought, the smaller size of mobile phones actually corresponds to a greater material base. Moreover, the very lack of homogeneity of the materials and components in the mobile phones makes it more difficult to recycle them.
This issue is very important for the European Union, which has passed some WEEE directives to boost the recovery and the recycling of electronic devices.
The main goal of this paper is the analysis of the quantity and the quality of the materials of mobile phones and to identify the flows in their end-of-life phase. This type of study may provide clear and detailed information to help define more effective waste management and to promote adequate product policy.

Dematerialization in the European Union Energy System

Valeria Spada, Maria Dipaola

Since the first oil crisis energy consumptions statistics, provided by official sources, have been increasing all over the world. They cause concerns for the safety of fossil fuel supply, that our society uses mainly. Also the increasing of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere, responsible for greenhouse effect, is the issue of a careful international policy, with the aim to take back them to the 1990s values, as the Kyoto agreements established.

In order to face the above-mentioned problems, it is therefore necessary to carry out a series of effective corrective interventions, such as improvement of energy efficiency (through the application of new technologies already well-known and tested), increase in use of methane and electric energy and, later on, introduction of biomass, hydrogen, etc.

Modelling of Environmental and Economic Costs and Benefits of the Management of the Mountain Huts in Aosta Valley - Italy

Riccardo Beltramo, Alessandra, giovinazzo, Stefano Duglio

Management of mountain huts is inserted in a particularly fragile ecosystem, i.e. the mountains, to which they are linked by a relationship of mutual interdependence. As a business activity, the mountain hut interacts with the surrounding environment, and in doing so, generates inevitable impacts on this. As regards the public administration, the mountain hut category may represent a potential recipient of resources to the extent that it decides to encourage application of measures able to mitigate such impacts. This work describes a system of modelling the mountain hut activity at a double scale. The first describes the processes of the activity of each mountain hut and the relationships between these and protection of the surrounding environment, while the second level aggregates the individual models of 35 mountain huts of the Aosta Valley and describes system behaviour according to various strategies at aggregate level. The final aim is to establish, where sufficient quantitative data is available, a definition of costs and benefits such as to permit economic and environmental assessment of a suite of management and technological strategies at the level of each mountain hut or at aggregate level.

Technological Factors Influencing the Formation of Biogenic Amines in Cheese: A Review

Assia Vicentini, Mario Giaccio

Biogenic amines are basic nitrogenous compounds characterized by biological activity. They are organic molecules that can be synthesized by micro-organisms that generated decarboxylation of amino acids contents in foods of vegetable and animal origin. These molecules are important from the point of view of health since they are considered responsible for several outbreaks of food poisoning. Most types of biogenic amines can be detected in fish and fermented foods, such as cheeses and dairy products, fermented meat and vegetables, or some fermented beverages like wine and beer. This review is focalized on technological factors influencing the formation of biogenic amines in cheeses. Production of biogenic amines is strictly correlated to the nature of food and bacterial strains, but depends on the conserving methods and many other conditions too. Factors that influence the biogenic amines contents in foods are the raw treatments, the presence of pyridoxal-phosphate, the time and the temperature of ripening and preservation, the use of starter cultures and enzymes, the pH, the NaCl concentration, the presence of oxygen, the activity water, the relative humidity, the availability of free amino acids and, in recent studies, whole cheese has been involved too. The control of these technological factors in food production can be useful for the reduction of the biogenic amines formation. At present only the legal limits of histamine concentration in foods has been defined, but the establishing of limits for the other biogenic amines, above all tyramine in cheeses, is necessary too, because of their toxicity both as singular molecule and synergy role.